Type 2 Diabetes and Treatment

 

Napp recognises the threat to global health posed by diabetes, and is therefore, proud to offer innovative medicines targeted at treating patients with type 2 diabetes.

Type 2 diabetes accounts for 90%1 of diabetes cases worldwide and is a long-term disorder that is characterised by high blood sugar, insulin resistance and a relative lack of insulin.

Napp has a strong heritage in specialist driven primary care and through our work in diabetes, we further strengthen our commitment to making available innovative medicines that add real value to patients and healthcare systems.

What is Type 2 Diabetes?

In type 2 diabetes (T2DM), the response to insulin is diminished, and this is defined as insulin resistance. During this state, insulin is ineffective and is initially countered by an increase in insulin production to maintain glucose homeostasis, but over time, insulin production decreases, resulting in T2DM. T2DM is most commonly seen in people older than 45 years. Still, it is increasingly seen in children, adolescents and younger adults due to rising levels of obesity, physical inactivity and energy-dense diets.2

What are the Treatment Options for Diabetes?

A diet low in saturated fat, refined carbohydrates, fructose corn syrup and high in fibre and monounsaturated fats needs to be encouraged. Aerobic exercise for a duration of 90 to 150 minutes per week is also beneficial. The major goals of treatment are the reduction in blood sugar and other risk factors for cardiovascular and renal diseases such as blood pressure and weight.2

If adequate glycaemia cannot be achieved, metformin is the first-line therapy. Following metformin, many other therapies such as oral sulphonylureas, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists, sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors, pioglitazone (especially if the patient has fatty liver disease), alpha-glucosidase inhibitors and insulin, are available.2

References

  1. 1. International Diabetes Federation. IDF Diabetes Atlas, Ninth Edition 2019. https://diabetesatlas.org/upload/resources/material/20200302_133351_IDFATLAS9e-final-web.pdf.
    [Accessed May 2021].
  2. 2. Goyal R, Jialal I. Diabetes Mellitus Type 2. [Updated 2020 Nov 20]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2021 Jan. Available from:
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK513253/. [Accessed May 2021].